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Terms of Reference Socio-economic and Livelihoods Assessment in Mukungwa and Akagera Lower Catchments

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Terms of ReferenceSocio-economic and Livelihoods Assessment in Mukungwa and Akagera Lower Catchments

I.    Background

Rwanda is a country located within the Great Lakes region of the central-eastern part of Africa with an area of 26,338 square Kilometres. The Congo Nile Ridge divides the country’s waters into two parts: those flowing to the west into the Congo Basin and those flowing to the east into the Nile Basin. Therefore, Rwanda principally has only two hydrographic basins. The Nile basin covers 67% of the country’s territory and drains 90 of National waters whereas the Congo Basin covers 33% of Rwanda’s territory and drains 10% of National waters (MINITERE, 2005).

Within the framework of implementing the National policy for water resources management, a National water resources master plan was developed in 2015 and this came up with a catchment subdivision, as one of the principles of the National Policy is a Catchment-based water resource management approach.

In that regard, the country sub-divided into nine levels one catchments and twenty levels two catchments. The following map illustrates the nine levels one catchment.


Figure1: Rwanda level one catchment

Key for the map:

CKIV stands for Congo Kivu Catchment, (ii) CRUS stands for Congo Rusizi Catchment, (iii) NNYU stands for Nile Nyabarongo Upper Catchment, (iv) NMUK stands for Nile Mukungwa Catchment, (v) NNYL stands for Nile Nyabarongo Lower Catchment, (vi) NAKN stands for Nile Akanyaru Catchment, (vii) NAKU stands for Nile Akagera Upper Catchment, (viii) NAKL stands for Nile Akagera Lower Catchment, (ix) NMUV stands for Nile Muvumba Catchment

As illustrated in the above map, Akagera lower and Mukungwa Catchments are among the nine levels one catchment in Rwanda.

In 2018, detailed management plans for two-level one catchments (Upper Nyabarongo and Muvumba) and two-level 2 catchments (Nyabugogo and Sebeya) were developed through the Water for Growth program and are now under implementation. Two other levels 2 catchments (Nyabarongo Valley and Akagera Upper (1) are also under development in collaboration with the Rwanda Environmental Management Authority.

It is within the same line that Rwanda Water Resources Board intends to develop two other levels one catchment plans namely Mukungwa and Akagera Lower. The development of two catchment plans will be done through the Embedding Integrated Water Resource Management In Rwanda” (EWMR) Project funded by the Government of the Netherlands and implemented by a consortium led by the Rwanda Water Resources Board with technical support from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and SNV.

II.    Overall objective of the consultancy

The overall objective of the consultancy is to conduct a socio-economic assessment and cost-benefit analysis for Mukungwa and Akagera lower catchments, identify needs and opportunities that support sustainable livelihoods considering available land and water resources, and develop recommendations in the form of proposals for catchment and landscape restoration interventions that will safeguard livelihoods by optimizing economic and ecological benefits.

III.    Scope of the assignment 

  1. Robust Household Economic Analysis:
    • Assess the socio-economic situation in the 2 catchments of Mukungwa and Akagera in order to understand the available resources and assets, opportunities and constraints and goals of the communities;
    • Conduct livelihood analysis in the two catchments with considerations of households’ food security and seasonal food availability;
    • Identify gender & culture responsive and inclusive alternative income-generating activities for livelihoods diversification that will reduce pressure from over-reliance of land and water resources;
    • Develop proposals for interventions based on livelihood assessment and key stakeholder/expert consultations, outlining financing resources requirements for implementing the identified livelihoods. The resource requirements should include capacity building, enterprise development, and marketing options among others.
    • Identify the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders who are and/or will be involved in livelihoods opportunities identified;
    • Present the assessment results to stakeholders in a validation workshop with the representation of communities engaged, government, and relevant collaborating groups. The feedback thus provided should be incorporated into assessment and recommendations.
  2. Economic and financial analysis of catchment restoration interventions based on biophysical analysis (under Lot 1).
  • Collect and analyse market data and economic value for ecosystem goods and services from restoration interventions.
    • Prepare enterprise budgets of each restoration intervention in the opportunities mentioned in the content scope.
    • Conduct a Cost-Benefit Analysis for investment in priority restoration options for Akagera and Mukungwa with projections under different scenarios.
    • Analyze market dynamics that influence/contribute to catchment degradation and land restoration and identify opportunities for using market-based solutions to catchment degradation and land restoration.
    • Analyze financing opportunities available to implement restoration measures and propose financing models that will foster sustainability of the measures with consideration to resilience and food security of communities that rely on the catchment resources.
    • Recommend strategies that will foster gender responsiveness and inclusivity of the proposed restoration interventions.

IV.    Consultants’ Profile

An international or local a firm to be hired should demonstrate professional qualifications and relevant experience in socio-economic/ livelihoods assessments, economics and financial analysis for restoration interventions with sustainable natural resource management, community participatory processes and livelihood improvement considering social inclusion (gender issues and using pro-poor lens). A consultant/consulting team with specific experience in undertaking similar work in the East Africa region especially in Rwanda is preferred.

The team leader should be as socio-economic/livelihoods expert supported by a senior team composed of members with a strong background and demonstrable expertise in Natural Resources Management, Environmental or Agricultural Economics;

Required Qualifications:

  • Minimum of a Master’s degree in rural development, environment, community development, natural resource management, sustainable rural livelihoods, sociology or related fields;
  • Minimum of 5 years of experience leading socio-economic assessments, community development, needs assessments, including sustainable livelihoods related to natural resource management and conservation;
  • Demonstrated experience developing and delivering high-quality socio-economic assessments, including gender analyses, with livelihood assessments associated with meeting the objectives of natural resource management;
  • Demonstrated experience in and excellent skills in stakeholder engagement at national and community levels, including efficient facilitation during meetings between various stakeholders (government, NGOs, CBOs levels);
  • Advanced practical knowledge of agricultural systems and analysis of agriculture-based livelihoods in the context of the East African region;
  • Experience implementing community-based and participatory approaches;
  • Background in people-centered approaches to sustainable land and water resources and associated livelihoods is an asset.

Required Competencies:

  • Demonstrated technical report writing to a high standard, data acquisition, and superior analysis skills;
  • Excellent writing and speaking skills in English. Kinyarwanda is an asset.

V.Main deliverables

The main deliverables of the assignment are as follows:




Inception report

20 days

Details the methodologies and approaches to conduct the socio-economic/livelihood assessment, including tools, indicators, community and stakeholder engagement plan, (ii) target communities, community groups and stakeholders, and (iii) detailed work plan and schedule. Incorporate reviews and comments, ensuring approval from consortium partners and Rwanda Water Board (RWB). Presentation on methodology for data collection for approval, to ensure that appropriate tools are developed to match identified data. A validation workshop of the inception report with relevant stakeholder and integration of comments prior to commencement of the assignment

Interim report and draft proposals

30 days

  1. Report on livelihood assessment with recommendations on livelihood intervention strategies and stakeholder analysis.
  2. Proposals for interventions on alternative income generation activities including draft financial estimates.
  3. Report on cost benefit analysis for landscape restoration interventions identified by the biophysical analysis

Final Technical Reports

20 days

Final report for each catchment  containing all deliverables  with details on stakeholder engagement and recommendations for;

  1. Income-generating activities that support the sustainable management of the catchment-based of community engagements and including stakeholder feedback.
  2.  Appropriate economically feasible restoration investments based on the socio-economic cost benefit analysis.

Technical files submission

Data sets including the list of contacts, and  tools used in the analysis

VI. Duration of the assignment

The assignment will be conducted over a period of 3 months. The Experts will spend part of the duration of the assignment for data collection, definition of scenarios and alternatives, knowledge transfer to RWB staff and local counterparts and validation of findings.

Submissions of Financial and technical proposal

Financial and technical offers should be sent to, copying and 

Submissions should indicate “Name of Your Company” - “Socio-economic and Livelihoods Assessment in Mukungwa and Akagera Lower Catchments in the subject line

Deadline for submissions is 17:00 Rwanda time, 7 July 2020

Please note: due to the current travel restrictions this assignment is most suitable for Rwandan Nationals and or consultants of other nationalities already present and legally authorized to work in Rwanda.